Modified Starches

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  • The enzyme GtfML4 of Lactobacillus reuteri strain ML4 is a 4,6-α-glucanotransferase converting pure malto-oligosaccharide substrates (≥ Dp 4) into linear oligosaccharide and polymer products. The products contain ~50 % α(1→4)-, and  ~50 % α(1→6) linkages using maltheptaose (Dp 7) as the starting material. GtfML4 synthesizes mainly α(1→6) linkages, which ensures that the products are water-soluble. The polysaccharide product could be used as a solubilizing agent for improving the solubility of poorly water-soluble compounds like drug molecules. Another purpose of this product could be the application for energy and soft drinks.

    This product is sold for research use only.

    α(1→4) and α(1→6)

    No

    ~50 % α(1→4) and ~50 % α(1→6)

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  • The enzyme GtfW of Lactobacillus reuteri strain DSM 20016 is a 4,6-α-glucanotransferase converting pure malto-oligosaccharide substrates into linear oligosaccharide and polymer products. The products contain ~50 % α(1→4)-, and  ~50 % α(1→6) linkages using maltheptaose (Dp 7) as the starting material. GtfW synthesizes mainly α(1→6) linkages, which ensures that the products are water-soluble. The polysaccharide product could be used as a solubilizing agent for improving the solubility of poorly water-soluble compounds like drug molecules. Another purpose of the product could be the application for energy and soft drinks.

    This product is sold for research use only.

    α(1→4) and α(1→6)

    No

    ~50 % α(1→4) and ~50 % α(1→6)

    No data

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  • The N-terminally- and domain V truncated enzyme GtfB of Lactobacillus reuteri strain 121 is able to convert malto-oligosaccharides and starch in multiple carbohydrate structures. The products formed by the 4,6-glucanotransferase yielding elongated isomalto-/malto-oligosaccharides (IMMO) and isomalto-/malto-polymers (IMMPs).

    The enzyme GtfB-ΔN-ΔV converts maltoheptaose with a degree of polymerization (dp) of 7 in linear carbohydrates with a dp ranging from dp 2 to dp 35. Size-exclusion chromatography with BioGel P-2 is used to separate the compounds, and a fraction is taken consisting of compounds of dp > 10. The glucans of dp > 35 contain 85 % α(1→6), and 15 % α(1→4) glycosidic linkages. The modified starch products formed by the GtfB enzyme are derived soluble dietary fibers, which are potentially useful in the food industry.

    This product is sold for research use only.

    α(1→6) and α(1→4)

    No

    85 % α(1→6) and 15 % α(1→4) for glucans dp > 35

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  • The N-terminally truncated GtfB enzyme of Lactobacillus fermentum NCC 2970 is a member of the GH70 family. The 4,3-α-glucanotransferase converts amylose and maltooligosaccharides in an alternating glucan containing 60 % α(1→4) and 40 % α(1→3) glucosidic linkages, and 8 % α(1→3,4) branching points. The polymer has a degree of polymerization of > 30 units. As far as known, the formation of a branched glucan with(1→4) and (1→3) glucosidic linkages is unique.

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    α(1→4) and α(1→3)

    Yes

    60 % α(1→4) and 40 % α(1→3)

    6 % Glcp-(1→, 28 % →3)-Glcp-(1→, 58 % →4)-Glcp-(1→, 8 % →3,4)-Glcp-(1→

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  • The N-terminally truncated GtfB enzyme of Lactobacillus reuteri NCC 2613 converts amylose in a low molecular mass  (0,007 mDA) reuteran-like polymer. The glucan contains 75 % linear α(1→4) alternated with 25 % α(1→6) glucosidic linkages, and α(1→4,6) branching points. Based on digestibility studies it seems likely that this glucan structure is not or slow digested by the human digestible tract enzymes, so it has a high potential for the food industry.

    There are a lot of differences between the products formed by the 4,6 glucanotransferase GtfB subfamily. GtfB strain 121 formes a long linear consecutive polymer with α(1→6) linkages (IMMP), whether the glucan of strain NCC 2613 is branched and has a low molecular weight.

    This product is sold for research use only.
     

    α(1→4) and α(1→6)

    Yes

    75 % α(1→4) and 25 % α(1→6)

    15 % Glcp-(1→, 59 % →4)-Glcp-(1→, 10 % →6)-Glcp-(1→, 16 % →4,6)-Glcp-(1→

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  • The GtfD enzyme of Azotobacter chroococcum is a unique evolutionary intermediate between glycoside hydrolase family GH13 (α-amylase) and GH70 (glucansucrase). The product of GtfD is a high molecular mass α(1→4,6) branched reuteran like polymer with 68 % α(1→4), and 32 % α(1→6) glycosidic linkages using amylose V as substrate. The polymer has a molecular weight of 13 MDa. The glucan is highly similar to the product formed by Lactobacillus reuteri GtfA glucansucrase from sucrose.

    α(1→4) and α(1→6)

    Yes

    68 % α(1→4) and 32 % α(1→6)

    19 % Glcp-(1→, 45 % →4)-Glcp-(1→, 18 % →6)-Glcp-(1→, 18 % →4,6)-Glcp-(1→

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  • The GtfD 4,6-α-glucanotransferase enzyme of Paenibacillus beijingensis is a member of the glycoside hydrolase family 70. It produces two reuteran-like polymers distributions that were generated from amylose V: a high-molecular-mass polymer (HMMP) and a low-molecular-mass polymer (LMMP) containing both long linear α(1→4) chains. The HMM polymer with an average length of 27 MDa contains 71 % α(1→4) and 29 % α(1→6)linkages. While the LMM polymer of 19 KDa consists of 77 % α(1→4) and 23 % α(1→6) linkages. Indicating the HMM has a slightly higher amount of α(1→6) linkages. The polymers may be suitable as a biocatalyst to reduce the glycemic index of starch-containing food.

    α(1→4) and α(1→6)

    Yes

    LMM: 77 % α(1→4) and 23 % α(1→6) HMM: 71 % α(1→4) and 29 % α(1→6)

    LMM: 15 % Glcp-(1→, 62 % →4)-Glcp-(1→, 5 % →6)-Glcp-(1, 18 % →4,6)-Glcp-(1→ HMM: 17 % Glcp-(1→, 54 % →4)-Glcp-(1→, 11 % →6)-Glcp-(1, 18 % →4,6)-Glcp-(1→

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  • The GtfC enzyme of Exiguobacterium sibiricum 255-15 is an interesting intermediate between α-amylases GH13 and glucansucrase enzymes GH70. The 4,6 glucanotransferase synthesizes a mixture of isomalto/malto-oligosaccharides (IMMOs) and polymers containing 52 % α(1→6) and 35 % α(1→4)-glycosidic linkages using amylose V. The GtfC enzyme produces significantly more oligosaccharide products compared to the GtfB enzyme of L. reuteri 121.

    This product is sold for research use only.

    α(1→4) and α(1→6)

    No

    52 % α(1→6), 35 % α(1→4), and 13 % free glucose units

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