The C-terminally truncated β-galactosidase enzyme from Bacillus circulans ATCC 31382 is a member of Glycoside Hydrolase family 2. This microbial enzyme also known as BgaD-D is widely used as a biocatalyst in the food industry for the production of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) by using lactose. GOS mixtures mimic the prebiotic effects of the human milk oligosaccharides, and therefore are added to infant formula. The GOS product synthesized by BgaD-D presents a carbohydrate mixture showing a majority of β(1→4) linked galactose on the reducing glucose residue, and a trace amount of β(1→2), β(1→3), β(1→6) linkages. The products contain both linear and branched structures. Some structures have been further elongated with β(1→4)-linked galactose residues.
Besides the wild type of B. Ciruculans ATCC 31382 is able to synthesize oligosaccharides out of lactulose (OsLu). The products of the wild type enzyme have a preference for introducing β(1→4) and β(1→3) linkages. OsLu may act as prebiotic compounds and are potentially resistant to gut digestion.
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*Activity was measured by following the release of glucose from lactose. One unit of enzyme activity is defined as the release of 1 μmol of substrate per minute.